Barou, Frances (English, period of flourish 1797-1801): Little is known of Frances Barou's origins or personal life. Active for a short period of years, she exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1797 to 1801. In exhibition records she is identified simply as Mrs. Barou of 32 St. Albans Street, Pall Mall. No record can be found of her after 1801. It is supposed that, prior to 1797, she might have been married in France (Barou being a name commonly associated with the Normandy region), and returned that country after 1801. Surviving works by her are quite rare and exquisitely painted. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 122, 123) and Foskett (page 485).*
Barry, John (English, period of flourish 1784-1827): Although he was quite a talented miniaturist, little is known about the life and origins of John Barry, who lived and worked in London during the Regency and Georgian Eras. He is said to have also worked briefly in Lisbon, Portugal in 1788. Exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1784 to 1827. Known to have works in collections of the Victoria & Albert Museum (London), Nottingham Castle Museum & Art Gallery (Nottingham, England), and The Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City). Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 124, 125), Foskett (page 486), and Schidlof (page 64).*
Bartlett, Michael (English, 1922-2008): A highly respected miniaturist of the late twentieth century, his method of depicting modern subjects is said to have inspired renewed interest in miniature portraiture. He is particularly known for the large number of miniatures he painted that feature uniforms of British military officers of the 18th-20th centuries. His depictions of such uniforms are considered quite historically accurate; but what makes his portraits unique is that he had friends and acquaintances model for them, inserting their modern faces and poses into historical settings. He served terms as Vice President of both the Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers (a/k/a Royal Miniature Society) and the Society of Limners, Miniaturists and Calligraphers.
Blanchard, Washington (American, 1808-1855): Born in Boston, Massachusetts, where he spent the majority of his career as both a painter and lithographic artist. Exhibited at the Boston Athenæum in 1835 and 1836. In 1837, he relocated to Washington, D.C., where he was active painting miniature portraits of prominent citizens of that city. Notable subjects include John C. Calhoun (congressman and senator from South Carolina who also served as Vice President under both Presidents John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson), Henry Clay (long-term congressman and senator from Kentucky), Benjamin Tappan (senator from Ohio), and Silas Wright, Jr. (congressman and senator from New York and 14th Governor of New York). From Washington, he also traveled to Richmond, Virginia (winter of 1838-39), Philadelphia (1841) and Charleston, South Carolina (January 1844). In his later years, he returned to Boston, where he died of tuberculosis on June 9, 1855, at the age of 46. Listed by Barratt & Zabar (page 190), Bolton (page 14), Blättel (pages 154, 155) and Fielding (page 81).*
Bly, Morton H. (American, 1876-1935): Born in Antwerp, Belgium, of American parents. Studied art in both Antwerp and London before settling in New York City, where he was in high demand painting miniature portraits of many New Yorkers. Known to have works on display at the New York State Hall of Governors (Albany, New York) and the Williams College Museum of Art (Williamstown, Massachusetts).
Buck, Adam (Irish-English 1759-1833): Born in Cork, Ireland. Older brother of equally prominent, but less proficient Frederick Buck. Relocated to London in 1795, where he exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts from that year (1795) until his death in 1833. Also exhibited at the British Institution (Suffolk Street) and the New Water-Colour Society. He is most known for his miniature portraits in watercolor on ivory, but he also produced a large number of neoclassical and figure drawings on paper. Known to have works in collections of the British Museum, the National Portrait Gallery of Ireland and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 188, 189), Foskett (page 501) and Schidlof (page 116).*
Buck, Frederick (Irish, 1771-1839/40): Born in Cork, Ireland, where he remained his entire life. Younger brother of Adam Buck, who relocated to London in 1795. Entered the Royal Dublin Society's drawing school in 1783. Had a long and active painting career in Cork, from 1787 to about 1823. Especially known for his miniatures of British soldiers, a many of whom had Buck paint their portraits when they were passing through Cork, en route to the Continent during the Peninsular War (1807-1814). Known to have works on display at the Victoria and Albert Museum (London), the McCord Museum (Montreal, Quebec), the Canadian War Museum (Ottawa, Ontario), and the Greater Manchester Museum Groups (Manchester, England). Listed by Blättel (pages 188, 189), Foskett (page 501) and Schidlof (page 116).*
Cannon, Edith Margaret (English, 1856-1937): Born in 1856, in Bolton, Lancashire (about 10 miles northwest of Manchester), Edith Margaret Cannon was the eldest of eight children born to John Cannon (1819-before 1891) and Ellen Badger (1834-1879). During her childhood, her father was a master cotton spinner. Working in partnership with his own father, William Cannon (1782-1867), he managed over 250 employees in their large, family-owned mill. (At the time, Bolton was a textile boomtown, one of the most active textile producing centers of of the world in the nineteenth century.) Upon the death of Edith's grandfather in 1867, the family cotton mill was sold and her father lived a life of independent means thereafter, serving as a gentleman justice of the peace. Edith's mother, Ellen, died in 1879. Shortly thereafter, her father remarried, marrying Georgiana Powell Francis, 25 years his junior, a family employee who had served for several years as governess of the Cannons' youngest children. Considering the young age of Edith's new step mother, one could easily imagine a strained relationship between the two, but they had long prior formed a close bond and seemed, in many respects, like sisters. By the year 1881, the family had relocated to Ealing, in West London, residing at 7 Windsor Road. Also that year, at the age of 25, Edith was identified for the first time as an artist by profession, appearing as such in the 1881 England Census. Research has not revealed, however, details of her prior education and artistic training. It was not until 1892, at the age of 36, that Edith first exhibited her work. Her father had by then died, and Edith continued to live in Ealing with her step-mother and younger siblings. For the next 12 years, until 1904, Edith continued to exhibit at both the Royal Academy of Arts and the Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers (a/k/a the Royal Miniature Society). Her stepmother, Georgiana, died in 1905, at which point Edith ceased exhibiting her work. Having herself never married, Edith continued to reside in London for the remainder of her life. She died in 1937, at the age of 81, while on holiday at the seaside town of Hove, on the south coast of England. In addition to painting miniature portraits in watercolor on ivory, Miss Cannon is known to have also painted full-sized portraits in oil on canvas. One such portrait that has recently come to auction bears the signature, "E. M. Cannon, Roma 1893", indicating that the artist had visited or perhaps even studied briefly in Rome. Listed by Arturi Phillips (page 41), Blättel (pages 200, 201), and Foskett (page 505).*
Carlin, John (American, 1813-1891): Born deaf and mute in early nineteenth century Philadelphia, his story offers a shining example of how one can overcome obstacles and adversities. He studied portrait painting under John Neagle (1796-1865) and took lessons in drawing from John Reubens Smith (1775-1849) before traveling abroad to France in 1838. There, he studied under Paul Delaroche (1797-1856) and took a strong interest in painting miniature portraits. He returned to the United States in 1841, settling in New York City, where he began painting miniature portraits professionally. From New York, he also made frequent working trips to Baltimore, Washington, D.C., and various towns throughout Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and New York State. Exhibited at the National Academy of Design (New York City), the American Art Union, the Maryland Historical Society and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. In addition to miniature portraits, he also produced a number of genre and landscape scenes. A tireless champion of those who shared his disabilities, he helped establish the National Deaf-Mute College (known now as Galludet University) in Washington, D.C. Known to have works in collections of the Cincinnati Art Museum, the Maryland Historical Society, the Museum of Fine Arts (Boston), The Metropolitan Museum (New York City), the New-York Historical Society and the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Listed by Barratt & Zabar (pages 209-213), Benezit, Blättel (pages 202, 203), Bolton (pages 22, 23), Fielding (page 141), Foskett (page 505), Johnson (pages 90, 91) and Schidlof (page 127).*
Carwardine, Penelope (English, 1730-1801): Took up miniature painting at a young age to provide for herself following her father's financial ruin. Well established by the age of 24 (1754). In 1772, at the age of 42, she married a Mr. Butler, after which she ceased to paint professionally. Typically signed her portraits with the initials, "P C". Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 206, 207), Foskett (page 507) and Schidlof (page 132).*
Chabanne, Flavien-Emmanual (French, 1799-1864): Both a miniature portrait painter and an engraver. Exhibited in both Lyons from 1826 to 1859 and Paris from 1831 to (?). Known to have works on display at Le Musée des Arts Décoratifs de Lyon (Lyon, France), Le Musée de la Miniature (Montélimar, France), the Museum Briner und Kern, Winterthur (Winterthur, Switzerland), the Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie (Kraków, Poland) and the Cincinnati Art Museum (Cincinnati, Ohio). Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 210, 211) and Lemoine-Bouchard (pages 145-147).*
Chalon, Maria A. (English, 1800-1867 -- listed in some sources by her married name of Mrs. Henry Moseley): Born in London; daughter of the esteemed animal painter Henry Barnard Chalon. Considered one of the most talented and successful female British miniaturists of the early nineteenth century. In 1841, she married Henry Moseley, himself also a painter and engraver. Between 1819 and 1866, she exhibited no less than 149 works at the Royal Academy of Arts. Also exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists (1834), the Suffolk Street Gallery, the British Institution (1863), and the Society of Women Artists (1857-1862). Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 212, 213, 654, 655), Foskett (page 603 - listed under the name Mrs. Henry Moseley) and Schidlof (page 137).*
Chamberlin, Amy Gertrude (English, 1857-1945): Known primarily by her married name of Chamberlin. Born in London to an artistic family (her father was an artist and dealer in artists' paints, her maternal grandfather was an engraver), her maiden name was Amy Gertrude Rowney. In 1880, she married timber merchant Edward Kirk Chamberlin. Typically signed her works, "A. G. Chamberlin". Active as a miniaturist from 1894 to 1935. Exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts, the Society of Miniaturists, and the Society of Women Artists. Listed by Arturi Phillips (page 182), Benezit, Blättel (pages 212, 213) and Foskett (page 508).*
Charlton, Edith Moreton (English, 1866-1923 -- listed in some sources by her married name of Mrs. John Charlton): Born in Carshalton, Surrey (a suburb of London), her maiden name was Edith Moreton Rance. (Some sources incorrectly identify her maiden name as Vaughan.) In 1890, she married mercantile salesman John Charlton. Active as a miniaturist from 1894 to 1915. Exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts and the Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Sculptors and Gravers (a/k/a Royal Miniature Society) from 1894 through 1914. Typically signed he works, "E. M. Charlton".) Listed by Arturi Phillips (page 43), Blättel (pages 214, 215) and Foskett (page 508).*
Charles, A. (English, ca. 1768-ca. 1810; period of flourish 1784-1807): Painted both full-color miniatures and silhouettes in watercolor on ivory. Surviving examples of both remain highly collectible. His miniatures are painted in a rather naive, but quite charming manner. Not requiring as much depth or detail, his silhouettes are more finely executed. In 1793, he was appointed painter to the Prince of Wales (son of King George III; himself later becoming King George IV, in 1820). From late 1793, he also referred to himself in advertisements as a Royal Academician. There is no record, however, of his having actually been a member of the Royal Academy of Arts. Only ever referred to himself in print as "Mr. Charles" or "A. Charles". He is, likewise, only referred to in public records as "A. Charles". Not knowing his full Christian name, it is difficult to trace his family origins. He is known, however, to have been active in London from 1784. His last advertisement in London appeared in 1797; but London land tax records show him to have rented a place of business on Hemmings Row (St. Martin in the Fields) through 1807. Typically signed his works as "by Charles" or "by Charles, R.A.". Some dealers, unaware of the artist's true identity, have taken liberty with the meaning of this signature, purporting it to refer to a haughty painter who felt himself important enough that he only had to sign by his first name. Charles Catton is a name commonly referenced (even though Catton never painted miniatures). Listed by Blättel (pages 214, 215), Foskett (page 508) and Schidlof (page 139, 140).*
de Chevarrier, Marie (French, 1834-1899): Born in Paris in 1834, her maiden name was Marie de Péne d'Argagnon. Studied in Paris under French miniaturists Pierre Paul Emmanuel de Pommayrac and Lizinka Aimée Zoé de Mirbel. Works prior to 1854 are signed in her maiden name. Works painted after 1854, the year of her marriage to Charles Ernest Alphonse Chevarrier (1817-1881), are signed in red as, "M. de Chevarrier". Exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1852 to 1882. Died in Biarritz in 1899. Listed by Blättel (pages 218, 219) Benezit, and Schidlof (page 146)*
Cheville, Mary Ellen (American, 1880-1970 -- preferred to go by the name of Marie): Born in 1880, in Sherman, Story County, Iowa, Marie Cheville was the youngest of six children born to William Cheville, Sr. (1840-1885) and Sarah Ann Potentine (1838-1886). She was orphaned at a young age -- her father having died when she was 5, and her mother having died when she was 6. Despite efforts by her older siblings to keep the family together, the younger Cheville children were ultimately separated and placed in foster homes. From 1887, Marie was raised by a Rev. and Mrs. Long in nearby Marshalltown, Iowa. By the age of 22, she relocated to California, where on October 4, 1902, she married Romeo Arthur Wallace. The marriage was short-lived, however, as the couple were divorced in less than two months, on November 29, 1902. Following her failed marriage, Marie pursued a career in dance, working first in San Francisco and later in Los Angeles as a toe dancer and vaudeville performer. As she aged, however, she found it difficult to continue dancing and was forced to find other sources of income. By 1922, she was working as both as a stenographer and an artist. Within five years (1927), she was able to support herself as an artist, having particularly made a name for herself as a miniature portrait painter. A November 1927 article in The Clubwoman (a newsletter for 24 women's groups in California), stated that she had painted members of many of the oldest and best known families in California. She was listed as an artist in directories and various public records through the year 1942. She died in 1970, in a Los Angeles nursing home. By then penniless and having no surviving relatives, she was buried in an unmarked grave.
Childe, James Warren (English, 1778-1862): Last name also seen spelled as Child. Variations of his middle name are also occasionally seen: Wearing, Wearin or Waring. Exhibited landscape paintings in London at the Royal Academy of Arts as early as 1798. Appears as a miniature portrait painter from 1815. Exhibited miniatures at both the Royal Academy and the Society of British Artists from 1815 to 1853. Particularly known for portraits of actors, actresses and other notable figures. (One of his most notable sitters was composer Felix Mendelssohn.) Unlike most other miniaturists of his day, who painted exclusively on ivory, he often executed portraits in pencil and watercolor on paper or card. Known to have works in collections of the National Portrait Gallery (London), the British Museum (London), the Victoria and Albert Museum (London), the National Army Museum (London) and the Staatsbibliothek/National Library (Berlin, Germany). Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 218, 219), Foskett (page 509) and Schidlof (page 146).*
Cotes, Samuel (English, 1734-1818): Said to have worked in both London and Bath. Exhibited in London at the Society of Artists (1760-1768) and at the Royal Academy of Arts (1769-1789). Ceased to paint by 1807, some 9 years before his death in 1818. Known to have works on display at The Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum (Bournemouth, England), National Trust, Belbrigg Hall (Norfolk, England) and Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (London). Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 244, 245), Foskett (pages 517, 518) and Schidlof (page 168).*
Day, Thomas (English, ca 1732-1807): Born in Devonshire. Studied in London under both Ozias Humphry and Daniel Dodd (who also previously instructed John Smart). Exhibited at the Society of Artists (1768-1783), the the Free Society of Artists (1768-1771) and the Royal Academy of Arts (1773-1788). In addition to miniature portraits in watercolor on ivory, he also executed larger portraits in pastels, and charcoal drawings. Known to have works in collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum (London) and several private collections worldwide. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 262, 263), Foskett (page 525) and Schidlof (page 187)*
Deroche, Mathieu (French , 1828-1906): Active in Paris from 1866 to 1904. A much sought after French photographer who was especially noted for his photographic enamels. He developed a process of colorizing photographs with detailed realism by developing them on enamel over a copper or porcelain base, coloring them by hand with paint, applying a protective glaze top coat and then firing the portrait in a kiln to set the glaze. His work earned much acclaim, having won, in particular, two awards at the Paris World's Fair (referred to as the Exposition Universelle in French): a gold medal in 1878 and the grand prix (grand prize) in 1900. His work was well respected in the United Kingdom as well. An article in an October 1878 issue of The Photographic News (London) noted his "remarkable perfection" in the execution of photographic enamels. [The Photographic News, Vol. XXII, No. 1050, October 18, 1878, London]. Known to have works in the National Portrait Gallery (London), the British Library (London), the Victoria and Albert Museum (London), Bibliothèque nationale de France (the National Library of France, Paris), the J. Paul Getty Museum (Los Angeles) the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City) and the Museum Boerhaave (Leiden, Netherlands). He is not listed in most dictionaries of miniature portrait painters, likely because he was not seen as an original painter (being that he worked with photographic bases). This slight is undeserved, however, as Deroche's work exceeded the quality of many painters of his day and his portraits have held up extraordinarily well over time.
Dufaux, [Pierre] Gabriel (Swiss-French, 1879-1938): Born in Geneva. A third generation enamel artist. His grandfather was the acclaimed Swiss enamelist Louis Dufaux (1802-1884). His father, Marc Dufaux (1833-1887), and uncle, Pierre Dufaux (1825-1873), were also life-long enamelists. Studied landscape painting in Geneva under Barthelemy Bodmer and Pierre Pignolat. Also studied enamel painting in Geneva under Henri Le Grand-Roy at the École des Arts Industriels (School of Industrial Arts). Spent the first decade of the 1900s working in Geneva as an enamelists (primarily commercial work). Relocated to Paris in 1910 where he established himself as both a portrait miniaturist (painting portraits in enamel) and a landscape painter (painting in oils). Listed by Blättel (pages 310, 311).*
Eastman, Frank Samuel
Easton, Reginald (English, 1806-1892): Little is known of Reginald Easton's origins other than that he was born on April 7, 1806 in Didbrook, Gloucester (baptized on August 17, 1807), the youngest of twelve children born to Charles and Elizabeth Easton of Coscombe House, Didbrook. Claiming to be entirely self taught, Easton began his art career as an engraver. He soon tired of the effects of copper and steel, however, and preferring to work with color, he abandoned engraving for miniature portraiture. That he was self-taught is quite remarkable when one considers the great skill with which he depicted his subjects. His overall draftsmanship, his balance of color and light, his use of soft, pleasing tones in clothing and backgrounds, and the soft, glowing skin tones he imparted upon his subjects brought him much favor and popularity amongst the fashionable and elite of Victorian London. A sign of great success as an artist of his era, he earned the patronage of much of the aristocracy and the Royal Family. Amongst his royal sitters were King William IV (1765-1837, uncle and predecessor of Queen Victoria), Princess Alexandra of Wales (1844-1925, later Queen Alexandra, wife of King Edward VII), Prince George of Wales (1865-1936, grandson of Queen Victoria, and later King George V), Princess Louise of Wales (1867-1931, granddaughter of Queen Victoria), Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine (1863-1950, granddaughter of Queen Victoria), Princess Elizabeth of Hesse and by Rhine (1864-1918, granddaughter of Queen Victoria), Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine (1866-1953, granddaughter of Queen Victoria), Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein (1867-1900, grandson of Queen Victoria), and Prince Albert of Schleswig-Holstein (1869-1931, grandson of Queen Victoria). Despite both his enviable skill and enviable clientele, however, Easton never achieved much financial success during his career. William Powell Frith (1819-1909), a contemporary and friend of Easton lamented this fact after Easton's death in 1892, when he spoke of having encouraged Easton for years to raise his prices. "The fault was perhaps his own," Frith continued, "loving only his art, he cared little for how it was rewarded, and towards the end of his career, though his powers were unimpaired, the photographic fiend pursued him [referring to the competition of photography], and all hope of better prices for his miniatures was gone." [Frith, William Powell (1893). Reginald Easton, Miniature Painter (article), published in The Magazine of Art, Cassell & Co., London, page 151.] Easton exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy of Arts between 1835 and 1887. He is known to have works in collections of the the Royal Collection Trust/Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the Victoria & Albert Museum (London), the National Portrait Gallery (London), the British Museum (London), the Museum of Fine Arts (Houston), and numerous private collections. Listed by Arturi Phillips (page 200), Benezit, Blättel (pages 322, 323), and Foskett (page 534).*
Einsle, Joseph Bernhard (Bavarian, 1774-1829): Joseph Bernhard Einsle was born in 1774, in the Bavarian town of Göggingen, a suburb of Augsburg. He is well known for his portraits of middle class subjects in touching scenes of everyday life, but he also painted more important subjects, such as Leopold II, 1747-1792 (Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and Hungary 1790-1792) and the King of Wuerttemberg (dated 1803). According to Blättel, he exhibited at the Academy Engine (Vienna) and was a painter to the court of Vienna. He is known to have lived and worked in Göggingen, Constanz at Lake Bodensee, Vienna, Frankfurt, Munich, and Augsburg. He died in Augsburg in 1829, at the age of 55. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 326, 327) and Schidlof (page 233).*
Engleheart, George (English, 1753-1829): One of eight children (all sons) born to German immigrant Francis Englhart and his English-born wife, Anne Dawney. (The spelling of the family name was changed to Engleheart after the death of Francis in 1773). Entered the then-newly formed Royal Academy Schools in 1769, where he studied under George Barret. Also studied under and worked in the studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, many of whose works he reproduced in miniature. Remained in London and began painting independently in 1773. Exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1773 to 1822. From 1775 to 1813, he kept a ledger book in which he recorded the names of his clients and the fees he charged to paint their portraits -- a resource that remains of great value to modern-day art historians and curators. [Several members of the Blake family are, in fact, recorded in this ledger: Capt. John Blake, Jr. (father of Mary Tymewell Blake, whose miniature portrait is held in the Tormey-Holder Collection), painted in 1778, Miss Arabella Blake (sister of Mary Tymewell Blake), painted in 1778, Mrs. Mary Blake (mother of Mary Tymewell Blake), painted in 1779, and Mary Tymewell Blake herself, painted in 1780.] Retired in 1818 to Blackheath, where he later died in 1829. Known to have works in collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum (London), the Wallace Collection (London), the Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge), The Ashmolean Museum (Oxford), the Holburne Museum (Bath) and numerous private collections. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 330, 331), Foskett (pages 535, 536) and Schidloff (pages 237, 238).*
Essex, William (English, 1784-1869): Not to be confused with his son, William B. Essex (1822-1852), who was also a miniature portrait painter. Known for crisp and detailed work in enamel -- particularly portraits and paintings of animals. As a student, he and his younger brother, Alfred Essex (1793-1871) worked for and under Charles Muss, enamel painter to William IV. Early in his career, he painted numerous miniature reproductions of larger works by early masters (mostly landscapes, animals and genre subjects). Later, he began painting miniature portraits of live sitters. Exhibited in London at the Royal Academy Arts from 1818 to 1862. Appointed miniaturist to Queen Victoria in 1839 and to Prince Albert in 1841. Also served as enamel painter to Princess Augusta of Cambridge. Amongst his pupils were acclaimed miniaturists W. B. Ford and J. W. Bailey. Known to have works in collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum (London), Ashmolean Museum (Oxford), National Gallery of Ireland (Dublin), the South Kensington Museum (London) and the Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio). Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 334, 335), and Foskett (pages 536, 537).
Frank, Johann (German, 1756-1804): A student of Italian miniaturists Guisseppe Camerata and Giovanni Battista Casanova. Exhibited at the Dresden Academy from 1773 to 1791. Listed by Blättel (pages 362, 363).*
Gabardi, Maria Antonietta (Italian, twentieth century): Also known by her married name, Maria Antonietta Gabardi-Brocchi. Active during the 1920s. Worked in the Via Bonifacio Lupi area of Florence. I am hoping that an expert in Italian miniaturists might be able to provide me with more detailed information about this artist.
Gibson, David (Scotch-English, period of flourish 1788-1804): Georgian Era artist David Gibson worked in London, Edinburgh and Manchester, where he executed both miniature portraits and engravings. Exhibited at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1790 to 1795. Most art historians note his period of flourish as being from 1788 to 1797, but he is known to have executed works much later. (The Gibson portrait in this collection is dated 1800; and there are two Gibson miniatures in the collection of the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, one dated 1802, and the other dated 1804.) His miniatures generally have a soft, pleasing appearance to them, being painted with lose brush strokes and paint that appears more watery than most. Known to have works in collections of the British Museum (London), the Victoria and Albert Museum (London) and the Nationalmuseum (English: National Museum of Fine Arts; Stockholm). Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 390, 391), Foskett (page 547), and Schidlof (pages 290, 291).*
Godwin, Catherine Grace née Garnett (English, 1798-1845): More widely recognized for her work as a poet (for which she won much praise by fellow poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850). Exhibited miniature portraits in London at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1829 to 1832. Her health declined from 1832, after which she is not known to have exhibited any paintings or to have published any meaningful literary works. Listed by Blättel (pages 400, 401) and Foskett (pages 548, 549).*
Gosse, Otto (presumed Austrian, eighteenth century): The identity of this artist has been difficult to pinpoint. He may have been related to Thomas Gosse (active in London during the same period) or Pierre Gos (Swiss-born, active in Paris during the same period).
Gouldsmith, Edmund (English, 1852-1932): Though represented in the Tormey-Holder Collection by his miniature portrait of George William Seymour Seton, Edmund Gouldsmith was more well known for his larger-scale landscapes, marine scenes and street scenes in oil on canvas. He was born in 1852 in Cotham, Bristol, Gloucester, the second of two children (both sons) of Thomas Edmund Gouldsmith (1818-1892) and Elizabeth Stacey (1825-1903). His father was a landed gentleman, affording him a privileged upbringing, a quality education and ample opportunity to travel. He studied art at both the Bristol School of Art in Gloucester, and the Royal Academy Schools in London. As a young man, he traveled extensively in Australia and New Zealand, where he painted and exhibited numerous works (mostly landscapes and street scenes in oil). He lived briefly in both Addelaide, South Australia and Christchurch, New Zealand. While in Christchurch, he taught art at Christ's College, an exclusive, Anglican school for young men. He was elected to the Canterbury Society of Arts (Christchurch) in 1886. From 1891, he returned to his hometown of Bristol, where he joined the Royal West of England Academy. He also maintained ties in London, however, where he was made a member of the Royal Society of British Artists. Between 1891 and 1901, he exhibited numerous works (mostly land and seascapes in oil) at the Royal Academy of Arts, the Royal Society of British Artists, the British Institution, the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, the Royal Scottish Academy, and the Society of British Artists (Suffolk Street). In 1903, at the age of 51, he married Amy Read, 20 years his junior; and the two settled in Bath, Somerset. There, they had a son, Edmund Humpage Gouldsmith (who, sadly, died at the young age of 14, in 1918). By the 1911 England Census, Gouldsmith's occupation was no longer listed as artist. Rather he was listed as simply living by "private means". The family's address was listed as 4 Bloomfield Place, Bath; and also living in the home were both a full time parlor maid and cook. Gouldsmith died in 1932, at the age of 80. He is known to have works in the collections of the Art Gallery of South Australia (Addelaide, South Australia), the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (Wellington, New Zealand) and the Poole Museum (Poole, Dorset, England). Listed by Benezit.*
Greiner, Christopher Martin (German-American, 1809-1885): There has been much confusion over the years about the origins and history of Christopher Martin Greiner. He is mistakenly referred to by some as Christian Greiner; and, universally, he is mistakenly said to have died in 1864 (he actually died 21 years later, in 1885). Research reveals that Christopher Greiner was born in 1809, in the German city of Stuttgart, in what was then the Kingdom of Württemberg. In 1835, at the age of 26, he emigrated to America with his his extended family (which included his older brother Ludwig, the toymaker of early American fame most remembered for his creation of the "Greiner Doll"), and settled in Philadelphia. The first evidence of his work as a painter in Philadelphia dates to 1837, when he was employed as a miniature painter by George Washington Reed, a Philadelphia silversmith, jeweler and watchmaker who hired Greiner to paint miniature portraits for his well-to-do customers. Within four years, however, he had branched out on his own, as evidenced by advertisements in Philadelphia newspapers from November 1841 that bore Greiner's name alone. Though most well known for his miniature portraits in watercolor on ivory, he also painted full-sized portraits in oil on canvas and portraits and decorative scenes in enamel on porcelain. He exhibited at the Franklin Institute in 1842 and 1843. He last advertised in Philadelphia newspapers in 1849, but is known to have remained active as a painter, until at least 1864. He died in Philadelphia on July 21, 1885, at the age of 76. Known to have works in the collections of the Smithsonian American Art Museum (Washington, D.C.), and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia). Listed by Blättel (pages 412, 413), Bolton (page 76) and Fielding (page 373).*
Hamilton, Gustavus (Irish, 1739-1775): Born in County Meath, Ireland (just north of Dublin). At a young age, he studied under Irish painter Robert West, at his drawing school located on George's Lane in Dublin (which later became the Royal Dublin Society Art Schools). He then apprenticed under Samuel Dixon, an Irish artist known for his watercolor paintings and, in particular, his depictions of flowers and birds in bas-relief (embossed paper-mâché). Upon branching out on his own, he established himself as a portrait painter, primarily painting miniature portraits in watercolor on ivory, but also painting larger portraits in pastels. Exhibited at the Society of Artists in Ireland (Dublin) from 1765-1773. Died in Dublin at the young age of 36. Hamilton's miniatures are typically quite small and are often housed in lockets or bracelets. He employed soft, rounded edges in his paintings, used a tinge of blue when shading faces, and depicted his subjects with disproportionately large eyes and noses -- creating a distinctive look that could be described in modern parlance as "cute". Surviving miniatures by him are highly collectible. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 434, 435), Foskett (page 555) and Schidlof (page 330).*
Hancock, Nathaniel (American, 1762-1833): Very little is known about Nathaniel Hancock’s origins or where he received his artistic training. His presence as a painter was first documented in Boston, in 1789, when he published newspaper advertisements announcing his return to that city (implying that he had lived in or painted in Boston prior to 1789) and the opening of his studio on Federal Street. In November 1793, he advertised having a studio on Boston’s Tremont Street. A mere four months later, in March 1794, he published new ads notifying patrons that he had abandoned his Tremont Street studio in favor of a chamber on Court Street, located above the painting room of portrait painter John Johnston (1753-1819). (Interestingly, Hancock’s miniatures of the mid 1790s show an evolved style and maturity that is clearly indicative of influence by the older Johnston.) From 1795, Hancock then began a period of travel, alternating his time between Boston and several other cities, typically for a season at a time. In particular, he is known to have painted in Petersburg, Virginia, Richmond, Virginia, Portland, Maine, Exeter, New Hampshire, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Salem, Massachusetts, and Newburyport, Massachusetts. His painting activity was last documented in March 1809, when he advertised his services as a miniature painter in Newburyport. After 1809, details about the last 24 years of Hancock’s life remain foggy. He died on March 25, 1833, at the age of 71, at the McLean Asylum for the Insane, located in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Listed by Blättel (pages 436-437), Bolton (pages 78-79), Groce & Wallace (page 289), and Johnson (pages 130-131).*
Hankey, Mabel Lee (English, 1867-1943; maiden name Mabel Emily Hobson): The fourth of five children born to Henry Edrington Hobson (1819-1881) and Ada Vinson Hardy (1829-1911), Mabel Emily Hobson was born in Bath, in 1867. She exhibited natural artistic skill at an early age -- not a surprise, given that she was born to a three-generation family of artists. Both of her grandfathers, Henry Hobson and James Hardy, were artists; her father, Henry Edrington Hobson, was a painter of landscapes and romantic scenes; and her mother, Ada Vinson Hobson (née Hardy), painted portraits in watercolor. In addition, her older brother, Henry Hope Hobson, was a draftsman; her sister, Amy Elizabeth Hobson, was a portrait painter; and her youngest brother, Cecil James Hobson, was, like her, a painter of miniature portraits in watercolor on ivory. In 1896, at the age of 29, Mabel married William Lee Hankey (1869-1952), himself a painter and book illustrator who specialized in landscapes and character studies. William preferred to identify himself by the surname of Lee Hankey (often hyphenated as Lee-Hankey), rather than just Hankey. (Lee was actually his middle name, derived from his mother's maiden name.) Thus, from the time of their marriage, in deference to her new husband, Mabel took on the name of Lee Hankey, omitting from her married name both her middle name of Emily and her maiden name of Hobson. (The two were listed in many documents and directories by the name Lee-Hankey; and they are, likewise, listed alternatively under Hankey and Lee Hankey in various art history resources.) Twenty-one years after their marriage, the couple divorced. William subsequently married Edith Mary Garner, 12 yeas his junior; Mabel never remarried. After the divorce, she chose to abandon the Lee name and identified herself thereafter as Mabel Emily Hankey. Though often overshadowed by her flamboyant and more successful husband, Mabel achieved notable recognition in her own right. She exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Miniature Society from 1889 to 1897 under her maiden name, and from 1898-1914 under her married name. Having earned the patronage of Lady Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she came to ultimately paint numerous members of the Royal Family and British aristocracy. Most famous amongst her sitters was Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (later Queen Elizabeth, wife of King George VI), whom she painted numerous times from early childhood to adulthood. Five of her miniatures are held by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, in the Royal Collection Trust. Listed by Arturi Phillips (pages 212, 213), Benezit (listed as Mabel E. Hobson), Blättel (pages 436, 437), and Foskett (page 555).*
Hartman, Marion Caroline Hoffman (American, 1892-1971): Born in New York City on October 12, 1892. Married attorney Siegfried Frisch Hartman on October 14, 1920, at the age of 27. Painted professionally (both full-sized and miniature portraits) from 1820 until about 1835. Exhibited at The Society of Independent Artists (New York) in 1927. Divorced from Siegfried Hartman in 1950. Remarried in 1951 to Hugo Kastor. Died in New York City on September 30, 1971. Her works are in collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), the National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.), and the Navy Art Collection in The National Museum of the United States Navy on the Washington Navy Yard (Building 76, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C.). Listed by Barratt and Zabar (page 278), Falk (page 1,480) and Marlor (page 285).
Helme, Sebastian (German, 1799-1841): Name also seen spelled as Helmlin. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 452, 453).*
Hervé, Charles Stanley (English, nineteenth century): Exhibited in London at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1828 to 1858. Listed by Benezit and Blättel (pages 460, 461)*
Howell, Florence Ethel
Hopkins, John (English/Irish, period of flourish 1791-1813): Little is known about John Hopkins' origins or personal life. This is compounded by the fact that he had a very common name and that it has been difficult to discern which public records apply to the artist as opposed to the numerous other John Hopkins who lived during his lifetime. It is supposed that he was born in Ireland, but this has not been confirmed; nor has research been able to pinpoint his years of birth or death. He is known to have lived in both London and Dublin. Between 1791 and 1798, he exhibited 15 portraits at the Royal Academy of Arts from the London address of 27 King Street, Holborn. In 1800, he exhibited 18 works (both portraits and landscapes) in Dublin, at the Society of Artists in Ireland. His address at the time was listed as No. 27 Dame Street, Dublin. Between 1802 and 1804, he exhibited 5 portraits at the Royal Academy from the London address of 7 Cornhill. After a hiatus of 5 years, he then exhibited again at the Royal Academy in 1809, from the address of 42 Pall Mall. He is recorded in London city directories at 13 Aske Terrace from 1811 to 1813. (The miniature portrait by him in the Tormey-Holder Collection was painted during this period -- evidenced by notes on the portrait's backing paper that read "Painted by John Hopkins / Aske Terrace / City Road".) In the years 1822 and 1825, he was listed in London city directories as living at 60 Shoreditch. Thereafter, no records can be found of John Hopkins as an artist. It is possible that he may have died shortly thereafter or that he may have retired to Ireland (where records of the period are sparse). Daphne Foskett, citing Basil S. Long, reports that Hopkins had a widow who died in May 1835 in "distressed circumstances". Both an Isabel Hopkins and a Theresa Hopkins are recorded as having died in London in May 1835 (aged 59 and 80 years old, respectively). No records have been found, however, documenting a John Hopkins having married either an Isabel or a Theresa, so this claim remains dubious. Hopkins is known to have works in collections of the British Museum (London) and the Victoria & Albert Museum (London). He painted both miniature portraits in watercolor on ivory and full sized portraits and landscapes in oil on canvas. He frequently incorporated neoclassical symbolism into his paintings. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 476, 477), Foskett (page 569) and Schidlof (page 373).*
Humphry, Ozias (English, 1742-1810): Showing an aptitude for drawing at a young age, he was sent to London in 1757, at the age of 15, where he studied at the St. Martin's Lane School and the Duke of Richmond's Gallery. In 1760, he was apprenticed in the town of Bath to miniature painter Samuel Collins (ca. 1735-1768), whose practice he ultimately succeeded. Relocated to London in 1764. From 1773, he spent four years touring Italy with the esteemed painter George Romney, after which he returned to London in 1777. Some years later, from 1785, he spent two years in India, after which he again returned to London. Exhibited at the Society of Artists from 1765 to 1771, and at the Royal Academy of Arts from 1779 to 1797. In addition to painting miniature portraits in watercolor on ivory, he also painted larger portraits in both pastels and oil on canvas. Considered one of the finest English miniaturists of the eighteenth century. Listed by Benezit, Blättel (pages 486, 487), Foskett (pages 572, 573) and Schidlof (pages 385, 386).*
Arturi Phillips: Carmela Arturi and Frederick Roger Phillips (2012). Dictionary of Miniature Painters 1870-1970, self-published in London by Ms. Arturi's and Mr. Phillip's Portrait Miniature Club.